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Consultant Alicia Castro

Coverage National

Prevalence Domestic Violence

Between 1981 and 1992 more than 1,300,000 reports of violent crimes, threatening the life, health and body of the victim, were filed with the National Police. These reports represent 45% of the total crimes reported to the police during this period.

According to the data from the Women’s Delegation in Lima, 56.4% of the reports filed between 1989 and 1993 were made by women against their husbands. In Arequipa, the number of men accused of maltreatment of their wives reached 67%. Of these incidents reported, 52.2% related to mistreatment by husbands, 44.5% by boyfriends/partners living with the woman, 2.8% by ex-husbands and 0.5% by ex-boyfriends.

During the period from 1994 to 1997, statistics show that 51.3% of reports filed were due to mistreatment from the husband, 43.8% by a boyfriend/partner living with the woman, 3.5% by an ex-husband and 1.4% by an ex-boyfriend. 94.4% of the reports related to physical violence. 63.5% of the aggressors were sober during the incident and 33.7% were inebriated.

The number of reports filed between 1994 and 1997 was approximately 20,515. In 1997 the number of reports received by the Women’s Commission in Lima was approximately 6,000. This is a significant number as it demonstrates an increase of more than 300% from the number of cases reported the year before.

In 1997 alone, of the total number of cases filed in Lima, 76.5% related to physical violence, equivalent to 18,801 registered cases and 23.5% (5,775 cases) related to psychological violence. 74.4% of the aggressors were sober during the incident, 24.1% were in an inebriated state and 1.5% were in a drugged state.

Between March 1997 and November 1998, the service "Ayuda Amiga", an emergency phone line, reported 2,715 calls and attended to a monthly average of 129 cases. 98% of the calls came from the metropolitan area of Lima.

Sexual Violence

In Lima, according to the Manuela Ramos Movement, in 1996 an average of 38 cases were reported monthly relating to crimes against sexual liberty and freedom. Of these, 58.5% were committed against children, boys and girls, between the ages of 7 and 14. 45.6% of the crimes occurred in the home of the victim and 30.6% occurred in the home of the aggressor.

According to the first Survey of Households regarding Victimisation in Metropolitan Lima, conducted with a sample of 8,000 people over the age of 12 years old, rape was identified as the second most common form of aggression, reported by 75.9% of the respondents. This was followed by 65.1% of respondents who indicated an attempt of sexual abuse.

According to information from the Public Ministry, in 1997, 758 cases of violations against sexual freedom were reported, an increase of 20.9% from 1996, when 599 cases were reported. In 1998, between January and October, 528 cases were reported, approximately 53 cases per month.

National studies reveal that 90% of mothers between the ages of 12 and 16 had been raped by someone within their own family.


For the protection of the victims and the sanction of those that have committed gender violent acts, Peru has the following legal mechanisms:

Law 26260 of Protection on Domestic Violence (December 1993) and the Rules and Regulations approved by the Supreme Decree 002-98-JUS

General Health Law N.26842

Law 26872 (1997) Conciliation law that focuses on the rights of the family regarding nutrition and domestic violence. Penal Code: sexual offences

Legislative Decree 728 Laws of the workplace (sexual harassment), article 66, clause h.

State’s Response

Domestic Violence

National Policy

Women’s Commission, Human Development by the Congress of the Republic (1998)

Multi-sectoral Round table for the prevention of family violence (1997) with participation from: PROMUDEH, Ministries of Education, Health, Interior, Justice, Public, the Public Defender and the Association of the Municipalities of Peru. As representatives of civil society, participate in the Centre for Peruvian Women "Flora Tristan". OPS and the UNFPA facilitated and strengthened the quality of the Roundtable discussion, as representatives of international organizations.

Political sector

Ministry for Promotion of Women’s Affairs and Human Rights (PROMUDEH) (29.10.96)

Initiating Group for Homes Free of Violence

Program in the Defence of Children and Adolescents

Defender specializing in the Rights of Women in the Public Defence

Ministry of Health

Office of Epidemiological Vigilance

National Program of Mental Health

Women’s Program, Health and Development

Ministry of Public Education: Program for the Prevention of Violence

Ministry of the Interior: Police – Delegation of Police Women

Ministry of Justice: National Ministerial Department of Justice

National Ministerial Department of Conciliation

Public Ministry: Provincial Public Prosecutors of the family

Local Politics

Municipalities: Municipal defenders for the Rights of the Child and Adolescents

Sexual Offences

Ministry for the Promotion of Women and of Human Rights

Defenders for the Child and the Adolescent

Local networks for the maltreatment of children

Telephone lines for the maltreatment of children

Office for the Planning of Adolescents

Program – Mother for Life

Response from civil society

Domestic Violence

Centre for Peruvian Women "Flora Tristán"

Institute of Local Development (Junìn)

Institute of Support to the Independent Movement of Rural Women

DEMUS: Study of the Defence of Women’s Human Rights

Manuela Ramos Movement

Provincial federation of Women of ICA

Association of Women Rural Workers of Huancabamba

Federation of Rural Women of Anta

Association for the Promotion and Defence of Women

Centre for the Promotion of Women

Co-ordinator of the Work of Women

Federation of Clubs of the Mothers of Ayacucho

Discussion group on population, women and family

Sexual offences

Centre of Social Studies and Research

Manuela Ramos Movement


CMP Flora Tristán

TIPACOM: Children’s workshop focussed at the community level

Women in prostitution

Centre for Support to Women Agustina Rivas

El Pozo Movement


By the State

Ministry of Health – National Program of Mental Health

Support Groups

Modules focussed on the maltreatment and health of children.

Ministry of Public Education

National Program for the Prevention of the illegal use of drugs

National Program: School for Parents

National Program: Sex Education

Support groups

Ministry of the Interior

Specialized sections addressing violence against women in the First Delegation of Lima (12 specialized sections exist in Lima)

Ministry of Justice

National Ministerial Department of Justice:

Information bureaus on the Judicial system and law in Lima and Callao

Telephone line for legal advice

National Ministerial Department of Conciliation: Centres of conciliation (14 in Lima, 2 in other provinces, 5 private in Lima, 2 private in other provinces)

 Public Ministry: Provincial Public Prosecutor for the Family

Public Prosecutor specializing in domestic violence

Municipalities: Municipal Defenders for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (843 DEMUNAS exist at the national level; 301 in Lima and 542 in the rest of the country) 

By non-governmental organizations 

The study gathered information on 21 organizations of civil society, which covered a variety of aspects and actions in addressing domestic violence. 

Altogether, the study identified 249 services which are provided by public organizations and civil society in this area. A break-down of these services is as follows: 

Consulting and legal advice 57

Medical specialities 19

Psychological counselling 24

Social work 17

Economic support 06

Support groups 40

Spiritual support 08

Community defense service 42

Hot line 11

Training 35 


UNDP Against Violence Home Page

For more information, please contact Aparna Mehrotra, Focal Point for Women, Tel: (212)963-6828 Fax: (212) 963-9545, e-mail: mehrotra@un.org

Management and direction: Aparna Mehrotra
Website  design
: Lola Salas
Writing, editing& proofing: Aparna Mehrotra, Dana Burde, Rini Banerjee and Tanaz Pardiwala
Graphic: Joan Miró
(detail) from folder by Isis International